Menelisik Spiritualitas Gerakan Pentakostal-Kharismatik dalam Potret Megachurch di Indonesia

Fredy Simanjuntak

Abstract


This study examines the notable expansion of Indonesian churches in urban areas, particularly in relation to the Pentecostal-Charismatic movement and its subsequent metamorphosis into megachurches. This phenomenon has become indisputable in the modern church's image, giving it a unique symbolism in the culture at large. With their expressive worship styles, vibrant environments, modern music, expansive stages, and inspirational sermons, these churches provide a distinctive religious experience. Even though this movement is gaining traction and expanding quickly, the research also draws attention to the idea that megachurches are a kind of religious commodification that may be more designed to appeal to the general public. As a result, the purpose of this study is to determine whether this transformation is only on the surface or if it includes comprehensive changes in the structure and essence of the church. The research method used is phenomenology, and theologically, this research finds a strong foundation for this movement in the Bible. The findings of this study show that, despite the criticism leveled at it, the megachurch movement has had a positive impact on the spiritual growth of its congregation, demonstrating that the megachurch phenomenon is not only superficial, but also includes a profound transformation in their spiritual experience.

Keywords: pentecostal-charismatic movement; spirituality; megachurch; Indonesia


Abstrak

Penelitian ini mengeksplorasi pertumbuhan gereja yang signifikan di daerah perkotaan di Indonesia, khususnya dalam konteks gerakan Pentakostal-Kharismatik yang kemudian mengalami transformasi menjadi gereja raksasa atau megachurch. Fenomena ini menjadi tak terbantahkan dalam gambaran gereja kontemporer, menciptakan simbolisme khas dalam masyarakat modern. Gereja-gereja ini menawarkan pengalaman religius yang unik dengan gaya ibadah ekspresif, suasana yang aktif, musik kontemporer, panggung yang megah, dan khotbah motivasional. Meskipun gerakan ini mendapat dukungan dan pertumbuhan pesat, penelitian ini juga menyoroti kritik terhadap konsep gereja mega sebagai komodifikasi agama yang mungkin lebih ditujukan untuk menarik massa. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menelusuri apakah transformasi ini hanya terjadi di permukaan atau mencakup perubahan menyeluruh dalam struktur dan esensi gereja. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah fenomenologi, dan secara teologis, penelitian ini menemukan dasar yang kuat dalam Alkitab untuk gerakan ini. Hasil penelitian ini merinci bahwa, di samping kritik yang muncul, gerakan ini memiliki dampak positif dalam pertumbuhan spiritual para jemaatnya, menunjukkan bahwa fenomena gereja raksasa tidak hanya bersifat permukaan, tetapi mencakup transformasi yang mendalam dalam pengalaman rohaniah mereka.

Kata Kunci: Gerakan Pentakostal-Kharismatik; Spiritualitas; Megachurch; Indonesia


References


Adiprasetya, Joas. Gereja Pengembara, Gereja Sahabat Dalam Ecclesia in Transitu. Edited by Meitha Sartika and Hizkia Anugerah Gunawan. Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia, 2018.

Allit, Patrick. Religion in America since 1945 : A History. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

Aritonang, Jan S. Berbagai Aliran Di Dalam Dan Di Sekitar Gereja. Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia, 2009.

Barrett, David B., and Todd M. Johnson. Annual Statistical Table on Global Mission: International Bulletin of Missionary Research, 1999.

Battista, Andrew. “After the Garden Is Gone: Megachurches, Pastoral, and Theologies of Consumption.” disClosure: A Journal of Social Theory 19 (2010): 83–96.

Bazanini, Roberto, and Celso Junior. “Market as Religion: The Dynamics of Business Network in Megachurches.” Brazilian Business Review 15, no. 3 (May 1, 2018): 262–283. http://bbronline.com.br/index.php/bbr/article/view/31.

Bottum, Joseph. “The Death of Protestant America: A Political Theory of the Mainline Protestant.” First Things, 2008. https://www.firstthings.com/article/2008/08/the-death-of-protestant-america.

Davis, John Jefferson. Worship and the Reality of God- An Evangelical Theology of Real Presence. USA: Intervarsity Press, 2010.

Dawn, Marva J. Reaching Out Without Dumbing Down: A Theology of Worship for This Urgent Time. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995.

Eagle, D. E. “Historicizing the Megachurch.” Journal of Social History 48, no. 3 (March 1, 2015): 589–604. https://academic.oup.com/jsh/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jsh/shu109.

Goodstein, Laurie. “Pentecostal and Charismatic Groups Growing, " in the New York Times.” https://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/06/us/06pentecostal.html.

Guder, Darrel L. “Missional Theology for a Missionary Church.” Journal for Preacher 22, no. 1 (1998).

Gultom, Junifrius. “Komersiaslisasi Kekristenan.” Reformata. Jakarta, 2015.

Hadaway, C. Kirk, and Penny Long Marler. Growth and Decline In the Mainline in Faith in America: Changes, Challenges, and New Directions. Edited by Charles H. Lippy. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2006.

Hasiholan, Anggi Maringan. “Polisentris Perkembangan Pentakostalisme: Sebuah Kajian Retrospektif Dari Gereja Abad Kuno Hingga Pertengahan.” KURIOS 9, no. 1 (April 3, 2023): 11–23. https://sttpb.ac.id/e-journal/index.php/kurios/article/view/592.

Hunt, Stephen J., ed. Handbook of Megachurches. Boston: BRILL, 2020. https://brill.com/view/title/54948.

Hunter, Harold D. Global Pentecostalism and Ecumenism Two Movements of the Holy Spirit. Eugene, Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2010.

Jacobsen, Eivind. “Book Reviews : George Ritzer: The McDonaldization of Society. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press, 1993. George Ritzer: Expressing America. A Critique of the Global Credit Card Society. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press, 1995.” Acta Sociologica 39, no. 2 (April 28, 1996): 221–226. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/000169939603900207.

Junifrius Gultom. Teologi Misi Pentakostal, Isu-Isu Terpilih. Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia, 2018.

Kuntowojoyo. Islam Sebagai Ilmu. Jakarta: Mizan, 2004.

Land, Steven Jack. Pentecostal Spirituality : A Passion for the Kingdom. Sheffield: Academic Press, 1993.

Marty, Marthin. “Minichurch and Megachurch.” The Christian Century 107, no. 28 (1990).

Meyer, Birgit. “‘If You Are a Devil, You Are a Witch and, If You Are a Witch, You Are a Devil.’ the Integration of ‘Pagan’ Ideas Into the Conceptual Universe of Ewe Christians in Southeastern Ghana.” Journal of Religion in Africa 22, no. 2 (1992): 98–132.

Miller, Vincent J. Consuming Religion: Christian Faith and Practice in a Consumer Culture. London: Bloomsbury Academi, 2005.

Prawira, Misael. Signifikansi Atribut Keindahan Allah Terhadap Teologi Ibadah Yang Formatif Dalam Revitalisasi Gereja - Bunga Rampai Pemikiran Kristen Kekinian. Edited by Ferry Y. Mamahit and Andreas H. Malang: LP2M STT SAAT, 2021.

Prior, John Mansford. Dari Kekompok Sempalan Menjadi Kekuatan Utama Dalam Kekuatan Ketiga Kekristenan. Seabad Gerakan Pentakostal 1906-2006. Edited by Georg Kirchberger and John Mansford. Maumere: Ledalero: Ledalero Puslit Candraditya, 2007.

Ruthven, Malise, Colin Thubron. The Divine Supermarket: Travels in Search of the Soul of America. Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2012.

Samuel, Wilfred J. Kristen Kharismatik Refleksi Atas Berbagai Kecenderungan Pasca Kharismatik. Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia, 2007.

Sanders, George. “Religious Non-Places: Corporate Megachurches and Their Contributions to Consumer Capitalism.” Critical Sociology 42, no. 1 (January 7, 2016): 71–86. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0896920514531605.

Simanjuntak, Fredy. “Kontroversi Kegerakan Pentakosta Yang Ke Tiga.” In Konfrensi Nasional The Third Pentecost and Its Movement, 61–75. Batam: STT Real Batam, 2019.

———. “Profleksi Liturgi Misional Pentakostal: Revitalisasi Liturgi Pentakostal Dalam Ibadah Minggu.” DUNAMIS: Jurnal Teologi dan Pendidikan Kristiani 7, no. 2 (March 3, 2023): 714–732. https://sttintheos.ac.id/e-journal/index.php/dunamis/article/view/813.

Stronstad, Roger. The Prophethood of All Believers: A Study in Luke’s Charismatic Theology. Cleveland: CTP Press, 2010.

Sutoyo, Daniel. “Gaya Hidup Gereja Mula-Mula Yang Disukai Dalam Kisah Para Rasul 2:42-47 Bagi Gereja Masa Kini.” Jurnal Antusias 3, no. 6 (2014): 1–31.

Thumma, Scott. Exploring the Megachurch Phenomena: Their Characteristics and Cultural Context, 1996. http://hirr.hartsem.edu/bookshelf/thumma_article2.html.

Tozer, A.W. Tozer on Worship and Entertainment. Camp Hill: WingSpread, 1997.

Witte, Marleen De. “Altar Media’s Living Word: Televised Charismatic Christianity in Ghana.” Journal of Religion in Africa 33, no. 2 (2003): 172–202.

Wuthnow, Robert. After the Baby Boomers: How Twenty· and Thirty-Somethings Are Shaping the Future of American Religion. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2007.

Zaluchu, Sonny Eli. Disrupsi Liturgi Dan Ibadah Gereja Dalam Era 4.0 Dalam Revitalisasi Gereja: Bunga Rampai Pemikiran Kristen Kekinian. Edited by Ferry Y. Mamahit and Andreas Hauw. 1st ed. Malang: LP2M STT SAAT, 2021.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.53547/diegesis.v6i2.484

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

            

View Diegesis Stats

Published: Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Real Batam
Address: Jl. Ahmad Yani, Komplek House of Glory Belakang Ruko Eden Park, Taman Baloi, Batam Kota, Batam City, 29432
Kec. Batam Kota, Kotamadaya Batam, Kepulauan Riau.

Website E-Jurnal: https://ojs.sttrealbatam.ac.id/index.php/diegesis
e-ISSN: 2685-3485
p-ISSN: 2685-3515

Lisensi Creative Commons
Ciptaan disebarluaskan di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional.
Copyright © Real Coster : Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat. All Rights Reserved.